General Internal Diseases - Kolan British Hospital

General Internal Diseases

In tandem with the diagnosis, the General Internal Diseases Division deals with all healthcare problems of the patient, if and when required, in cooperation with both the branches of specialization of internal diseases –endocrinology, nephrology, hematology, gastroenterology, rheumatology- and cardiology, respiratory diseases, infection diseases, neurology, all surgical divisions and psychiatric divisions, and if and when required, by consulting relevant divisions about the patient.

General Internal Diseases service covers not only polyclinic examinations and inpatient follow-up and treatment, but also check-up. Check-up is a comprehensive health screening conducted in certain periods without any specific complaint and in line with sex, age and increasing risk factors. Diagnosing many critical diseases as early as possible thanks to check-ups may from time to time increase the chances of success of treatment of diseases.

Basic Diseases

  • Reflux Disease
  • Gastritis
  • Gastric Ulcer and Gastric Bleeding
  • Dyspepsia
  • Diarrhea
  • Colitis (Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s Disease)
  • Constipation, Hemorrhoids
  • Hepatic Diseases (A, B, C Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, Fatty Liver, Jaundices)
  • Gall Bladder Stones and Inflammations
  • Familial Mediterranean Fever
  • Pancreatic Inflammations
  • Cancers (Duodenum, Gastric, Bowel, Liver, Pancreas)

Reflux Disease

In gastroeosophagial reflux disease (GERD), generally known shortly as reflux colloquially, the stomach contents (gastric acid, bile) leak backwards from stomach into esophagus. Generally, reflux remains undetected because of its short time and as it does not cause any damages in esophagus. However, if and when reflux is repeated frequently during the day, and continues for a long time, and especially occurs during sleep, it is termed as pathological reflux. This in turn causes chest burning sensation and various different degrees of damages in esophagus (erosion and ulcers), which are typical findings of reflux disease. In this case, it is diagnosed as “gastroeosophagial reflux disease” (GERD), or only “reflux disease” as commonly known colloquially. Reflux disease continuing for a long time and not treated adequately may cause stricture (narrowing) at the lumen of esophagus, which is seen in around 10% of reflux patients. Its main finding is swallowing difficulties.

Other probable complications of reflux disease are more severe problems which may be caused by chronic laryngitis and asthma or leakage of gastric contents into respiratory tract. A severe and silent complication of gastroeosophagial reflux disease is Barrett’s esophagus. Incidence of esophageal cancer in Barrett’s esophagus patients is 50 times higher than normal population. A person with these symptoms must absolutely go to a doctor and be followed up and treated as required.


Gastritis is a type of inflammation of gastric mucosa. May be acute or chronic. The most common reason of chronic gastritis is a microbe named Helicobacter pylori (HP). HP is a comma-form bacterium which is taken orally into stomach and causes an inflammation termed as gastritis therein. It has been demonstrated to play a role in gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer (duodenum), chronic gastritis, gastric cancer and malt lymphoma. In patients with HP in stomach, this bacterium is removed from stomach through some special drug therapies. The rate of efficacy of this treatment is around 80 – 85%.


If gastritis progresses and is not treated, it may first cause erosion, and then, this erosion may further deepen to lead to ulcer on surface of stomach.

Gluten-sensitive Enteropathy (Celiac Disease)

Small intestine is an important organ where food is digested and absorbed. Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a disease causing impairment of digestion and absorption of food. Celiac patients show sensitivity to “gluten”, which is a protein contained in wheat, barley, rye and to some extent, oat. Due to impairment of digestion and absorption of food, diarrhea starts and by time, deficiency of these substances develops. It may lead to such symptoms as anemia, iron deficiency, diarrhea, dyspepsia or weight loss. When celiac patients are on a gluten-free diet, the damage in their small intestine heals, but if they start to re-consume glutenous foods, the disease findings reappear.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease accompanied by changes in defecation habits, dyspepsia in abdomen, gas and abdomen pains.

Causes of Nausea and Vomiting

Gastroenteritis: If nausea and vomiting are followed by diarrhea, one of the probable causes thereof may be viral gastroenteritis (digestive system inflammation). Headache and fever may accompany it. Viral gastroenteritis is the most common reason of nausea and vomiting in children. This generally recovers in 24 to 48 hours. Most important treatment method of gastroenteritis is fluid replacement. Therefore, patients are recommended to drink abundant “clean” water. If required, the lost fluid and electrolytes are injected intravenously.

Food intoxication


Ulcers, stenoses and occlusions in digestive tract, and inflammations in pancreas, and inflammations and occlusions affecting gall bladder and its tracts, and inflammation of periton, and appendicitis.


  • Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Renal and suprarenal gland diseases
  • Radiotherapy
  • Ophthalmological diseases
  • Malign diseases

Disorders causing increase of intracranial pressure (hypertension, cerebral bleeding, cerebral edema or brain tumor).

If not treated, due to loss of electrolytes (potassium, chloride, etc.) needed in the body, severe fluid loss, electrolyte disorders, severe weight loss and blackout (loss of consciousness) may develop.